WebIndividual subscriptions and access to Questia are no longer available. We apologize for any inconvenience and are here to help you find similar resources WebRésidence officielle des rois de France, le château de Versailles et ses jardins comptent parmi les plus illustres monuments du patrimoine mondial et constituent la plus complète réalisation de l’art français du XVIIe siècle Web21/10/ · A footnote in Microsoft's submission to the UK's Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) has let slip the reason behind Call of Duty's absence from the Xbox Game Pass library: Sony and Web08/11/ · INTERPOL recently conducted operation African Surge to take down malicious infrastructure across the African continent and requested the help of private enterprises. Trend Micro is proud to have been asked to participate, and provided global threat intelligence that was utilized in this operation Web26/10/ · Key Findings. California voters have now received their mail ballots, and the November 8 general election has entered its final stage. Amid rising prices and economic uncertainty—as well as deep partisan divisions over social and political issues—Californians are processing a great deal of information to help them choose state constitutional ... read more
A few competitions have been held between expert Morse code operators and expert SMS users. For example, many Nokia mobile phones have an option to beep "S M S" in Morse code when it receives a short message.
Some of these phones could also play the Nokia slogan "Connecting people" in Morse code as a message tone. Many sports arenas now offer a number where patrons can text report security concerns, like drunk or unruly fans, or safety issues like spills.
For instance, the patron doesn't need to leave his seat and miss the event in order to report something important. Also, disruptive fans can be reported with relative anonymity. For instance, a single complaint in one section about an unruly fan can be addressed when convenient, while multiple complaints by several different patrons can be acted upon immediately. In this context, "tattle texting" refers to an automatic text sent by the computer in an automobile, because a preset condition was met.
Employers can also use the service to monitor their corporate vehicles. The technology is still new and currently only available on a few car models.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Act of typing and sending a brief, digital message. For the TV series, see Pop-Up Video.
For chatting in general, see online chat. Main article: Microblogging. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: SMS language. Main article: Texting while driving. Main article: Sexting. Main article: Cyberbullying. Main article: BlackBerry thumb.
Further information: Mobile phone spam. How Mobile Technology is Changing Our Culture. Telecommunication Journal. Retrieved 18 May Just over fifty years ago, in October , the Deutsche Reichspost as it was then known, opened the world's first public teleprinter network.
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Majorities across all demographic groups and partisan groups, as well as across regions, are pessimistic about the direction of the United States. A wide partisan divide exists: most Democrats and independents say their financial situation is about the same as a year ago, while solid majorities of Republicans say they are worse off.
Regionally, about half in the San Francisco Bay Area and Los Angeles say they are about the same, while half in the Central Valley say they are worse off; residents elsewhere are divided between being worse off and the same.
The shares saying they are worse off decline as educational attainment increases. Strong majorities across partisan groups feel negatively, but Republicans and independents are much more likely than Democrats to say the economy is in poor shape. Today, majorities across partisan, demographic, and regional groups say they are following news about the gubernatorial election either very or fairly closely.
In the upcoming November 8 election, there will be seven state propositions for voters. Due to time constraints, our survey only asked about three ballot measures: Propositions 26, 27, and For each, we read the proposition number, ballot, and ballot label. Two of the state ballot measures were also included in the September survey Propositions 27 and 30 , while Proposition 26 was not. This measure would allow in-person sports betting at racetracks and tribal casinos, requiring that racetracks and casinos offering sports betting make certain payments to the state to support state regulatory costs.
It also allows roulette and dice games at tribal casinos and adds a new way to enforce certain state gambling laws. Fewer than half of likely voters say the outcome of each of these state propositions is very important to them.
Today, 21 percent of likely voters say the outcome of Prop 26 is very important, 31 percent say the outcome of Prop 27 is very important, and 42 percent say the outcome of Prop 30 is very important.
Today, when it comes to the importance of the outcome of Prop 26, one in four or fewer across partisan groups say it is very important to them. About one in three across partisan groups say the outcome of Prop 27 is very important to them. Fewer than half across partisan groups say the outcome of Prop 30 is very important to them. When asked how they would vote if the election for the US House of Representatives were held today, 56 percent of likely voters say they would vote for or lean toward the Democratic candidate, while 39 percent would vote for or lean toward the Republican candidate.
Democratic candidates are preferred by a point margin in Democratic-held districts, while Republican candidates are preferred by a point margin in Republican-held districts. Abortion is another prominent issue in this election. When asked about the importance of abortion rights, 61 percent of likely voters say the issue is very important in determining their vote for Congress and another 20 percent say it is somewhat important; just 17 percent say it is not too or not at all important.
With the controlling party in Congress hanging in the balance, 51 percent of likely voters say they are extremely or very enthusiastic about voting for Congress this year; another 29 percent are somewhat enthusiastic while 19 percent are either not too or not at all enthusiastic.
Today, Democrats and Republicans have about equal levels of enthusiasm, while independents are much less likely to be extremely or very enthusiastic. As Californians prepare to vote in the upcoming midterm election, fewer than half of adults and likely voters are satisfied with the way democracy is working in the United States—and few are very satisfied.
Satisfaction was higher in our February survey when 53 percent of adults and 48 percent of likely voters were satisfied with democracy in America. Today, half of Democrats and about four in ten independents are satisfied, compared to about one in five Republicans. Notably, four in ten Republicans are not at all satisfied. In addition to the lack of satisfaction with the way democracy is working, Californians are divided about whether Americans of different political positions can still come together and work out their differences.
Forty-nine percent are optimistic, while 46 percent are pessimistic. Today, in a rare moment of bipartisan agreement, about four in ten Democrats, Republicans, and independents are optimistic that Americans of different political views will be able to come together.
Notably, in , half or more across parties, regions, and demographic groups were optimistic. Today, about eight in ten Democrats—compared to about half of independents and about one in ten Republicans—approve of Governor Newsom.
Across demographic groups, about half or more approve of how Governor Newsom is handling his job. Approval of Congress among adults has been below 40 percent for all of after seeing a brief run above 40 percent for all of Democrats are far more likely than Republicans to approve of Congress.
Fewer than half across regions and demographic groups approve of Congress. Approval in March was at 44 percent for adults and 39 percent for likely voters. Across demographic groups, about half or more approve among women, younger adults, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos.
Views are similar across education and income groups, with just fewer than half approving. Approval in March was at 41 percent for adults and 36 percent for likely voters. Across regions, approval reaches a majority only in the San Francisco Bay Area. Across demographic groups, approval reaches a majority only among African Americans.
This map highlights the five geographic regions for which we present results; these regions account for approximately 90 percent of the state population. Residents of other geographic areas in gray are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes for these less-populous areas are not large enough to report separately.
The PPIC Statewide Survey is directed by Mark Baldassare, president and CEO and survey director at the Public Policy Institute of California. Coauthors of this report include survey analyst Deja Thomas, who was the project manager for this survey; associate survey director and research fellow Dean Bonner; and survey analyst Rachel Lawler.
The Californians and Their Government survey is supported with funding from the Arjay and Frances F. Findings in this report are based on a survey of 1, California adult residents, including 1, interviewed on cell phones and interviewed on landline telephones. The sample included respondents reached by calling back respondents who had previously completed an interview in PPIC Statewide Surveys in the last six months.
Interviews took an average of 19 minutes to complete. Interviewing took place on weekend days and weekday nights from October 14—23, Cell phone interviews were conducted using a computer-generated random sample of cell phone numbers.
Additionally, we utilized a registration-based sample RBS of cell phone numbers for adults who are registered to vote in California. All cell phone numbers with California area codes were eligible for selection. After a cell phone user was reached, the interviewer verified that this person was age 18 or older, a resident of California, and in a safe place to continue the survey e. Cell phone respondents were offered a small reimbursement to help defray the cost of the call.
Cell phone interviews were conducted with adults who have cell phone service only and with those who have both cell phone and landline service in the household. Landline interviews were conducted using a computer-generated random sample of telephone numbers that ensured that both listed and unlisted numbers were called.
Additionally, we utilized a registration-based sample RBS of landline phone numbers for adults who are registered to vote in California. All landline telephone exchanges in California were eligible for selection. For both cell phones and landlines, telephone numbers were called as many as eight times. When no contact with an individual was made, calls to a number were limited to six. Also, to increase our ability to interview Asian American adults, we made up to three additional calls to phone numbers estimated by Survey Sampling International as likely to be associated with Asian American individuals.
Accent on Languages, Inc. The survey sample was closely comparable to the ACS figures. To estimate landline and cell phone service in California, Abt Associates used state-level estimates released by the National Center for Health Statistics—which used data from the National Health Interview Survey NHIS and the ACS. The estimates for California were then compared against landline and cell phone service reported in this survey.
We also used voter registration data from the California Secretary of State to compare the party registration of registered voters in our sample to party registration statewide.
The sampling error, taking design effects from weighting into consideration, is ±3. This means that 95 times out of , the results will be within 3.
The sampling error for unweighted subgroups is larger: for the 1, registered voters, the sampling error is ±4. For the sampling errors of additional subgroups, please see the table at the end of this section.
Sampling error is only one type of error to which surveys are subject. Results may also be affected by factors such as question wording, question order, and survey timing. We present results for five geographic regions, accounting for approximately 90 percent of the state population.
Residents of other geographic areas are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes for these less-populous areas are not large enough to report separately. We also present results for congressional districts currently held by Democrats or Republicans, based on residential zip code and party of the local US House member.
In this article, we shall briefly introduce APIs and then look at the various types of API protocols that are employed for their usage. The Different types of API Protocols covered are:. API stands for Application Programming Interface and refers to the act of communication between two or more computers or more specifically, computer programs. Like user interfaces exist to provide a platform for users to communicate with the system, an API exists to for softwares to interact with each other, such as executing instructions, fetching data from servers, etc.
A software can also interact with different softwares through multiple APIs, so as to provide a one-place-for-everything kind of support and become a hub of data accessing.
APIs also offer convenience to a user's experience. It is analogous to re-usability of code. Let's see this through an example:. A good common-place instance is when we use a food-delivery application on our smart-phones and pay for it via online means, say your PayTM wallet or Amazon Pay account.
When we select this wallet option, the wallet's interface opens up. We enter our PIN numbers and process the payment.
This switch from the food delivery application's interface to the wallet's interface is due to usage of an API, which borrows the wallet's functionality and lets us process the payment conveniently. These utilities do not maintain their own copy of data but instead use APIs to fetch updated data from the airplane companies' websites or a weather data website and display it accordingly.
APIs enable communication between services via request-response cycles. The application in need of data from another service or server sends a request, which is conveyed through API protocols and the required data is sent back from the server. APIs come with a defined set of calls and techniques which are utilized by developers to successfully integrate them in their softwares.
The rules which govern the use and application of these calls are termed as API Protocols. The protocols define the accepted commands and data types among other things and set a certain standard for API usage. It is an API protocol which employs XML to enable API communication. It is the oldest API protocol in use, emerging in SOAP uses XML files to transfer data between web services. However, SOAP also provides flexibility and enables data transmission over other protocols as well such as Transmission Control Protocol TCP , Simple Mail Transport Protocol SMTP , User Data Protocol UDP , etc.
Messages in SOAP are encoded in XML specifically and have a proper defined format:. While SOAP is highly prevalent on the web as well as flexible with its transmission channel, its reliance on XML makes it rigid due to its strict formatting. Difficulties in debugging XML also proves to be a hindrance.
REST protocols overcome SOAP's dependency on XML by supporting data transmission in multiple formats such as JSON most prominent , HTML, Python, plain text as well as media files. APIs which employ the REST protocol are called RESTful APIs. REST APIs follow a client-server architecture and must be stateless. Stateless communication implies that no client data is stored between GET requests. These GET requests must be distinct and disconnected.
REST assigns every operation a unique URL, so when the server receives a request, it knows which instructions to execute to fulfil the request. REST also supports caching. So, the browser can store the results obtained from the request locally and retrieve it periodically as needed, thereby increasing speed and efficiency.
A typical REST request has the following components:. JSON-RPC protocol arrived in the early 's and works extensively with JSON to provide limited but straightforward implementation of API communication. While narrow scoped, JSON-RPC defines a set of calls which can easily handle all functionalities defined under this scope and shows an improved performance over REST in these circumstances.
Overall, JSON-RPC is a lightweight and stateless and employs request objects and response objects to establish communication among web services.
As the name indicates, gRPC was developed at Google and released publicly in It is an open source RPC framework capable of running in most environments. Unlike above protocols, gRPC lets developers define their own custom functions to enable inter-service communication as required.
gRPC uses HTTP as its transport layer and also provides additional facilities such as authentication features, timeouts, flow control, etc.
Data is sent in protocol buffers , a language and platform independent mechanism which defines how data can be structured in a simpler intuitive way. Protocol buffers begin with defining the service first, followed by defining the data structures the service will use. This is compiled by the compiler protoc , which now creates an entire class furnished with your defined data types along with basic set methods in the development language you're working on.
Now, this class can be used to implement the detailed workings of the API. GraphQL was developed at Facebook and released in It takes a very interesting take on enabling API communication. GraphQL stands for Graph Query Language, and so like database query languages like SQL, GraphQL essentially queries data from the server. We define the data we need as well as its format in the query and GraphQL returns the data in the same format as requested.
This saves us time and memory as only the data which is explicitly needed is queried from the server, instead of importing entire prepackaged files with a lot of extra information. GraphQL has been developed to support a variety of web development languages. Issues arise when it comes to caching of data. Since data is requested very specifically, we may have to query other related aspects of data separately when needed, since they weren't queried in our previous request and thus cannot be found in the cache.
XML uses inbuilt vocabulary to specify the nature of responses and requests. The client dictates the procedure to be called and the supporting parameters in the request, which is then transmitted using HTTP and the receiver sends an XML response which can either be the data called for, or a fault is returned.
XML-RPC is limited by its dependency on XML as complex objects cannot be properly encoded in XML, which cannot contain data which hasn't been defined in its vocabulary.
Apache Thrift was also developed at Facebook. But it was built differently than GrapgQL that we saw earlier. Apache Thrift is essentially an implementation of RPC framework which uses a code generation engine combined with a software stack to enable an API. The software stack helps in writing code to define the client and server side.
This is done using Thrift files. The code syntax is flexible and intuitive. After this, the code generation engine generates the required code in any programming language specified by the developer.
Thrift was developed with focus on two primary goals: Enabling communication with services written in different languages and scalability. The use of the code generation makes services flexible. For actual transportation of data, Thrift has runtime libraries which facilitate inter-service communication.
Thrift architecture defines these libraries at a different level from the service which the developer writes the code for. So, changes in Thrift can be done easily without having to recompile our modified code from scratch, since the most basic elements remain unaffected by changes. Thrift provides support for HTTP transmission as well apart from binary transport formats.
Thus, through this article at OpenGenus, we have explored the basics of API protocols and their various types. Keep learning! The Different types of API Protocols covered are: SOAP REST JSON-RPC gRPC GraphQL XML-RPC Apache Thrift Let's begin!
What are APIs? Let's see this through an example: A good common-place instance is when we use a food-delivery application on our smart-phones and pay for it via online means, say your PayTM wallet or Amazon Pay account. Working APIs enable communication between services via request-response cycles. API Protocols APIs come with a defined set of calls and techniques which are utilized by developers to successfully integrate them in their softwares.
Let us explore some popular API Protocols one by one: SOAP Simple Objects Access Protocol It is an API protocol which employs XML to enable API communication. Header : Defines all extra information that might be needed to process this data. This is an optional element. REST Representational State Transfer REST protocols overcome SOAP's dependency on XML by supporting data transmission in multiple formats such as JSON most prominent , HTML, Python, plain text as well as media files.
A typical REST request has the following components: Endpoint : The destination URL from which data is being requested. Method : We use predefined methods such as GET, POST, PUT or DELETE to fetch the data.
These methods vary from one other. in when using GET, the data is appended to the end of the URL string, whereas in POST, the data is sent along with the HTTP request. Headers : They define the request's details and dictate the proper format in which the response must be received.
WebFirst, IQ Option broker attracts customers with a set of different options for investment, which will appeal to even the most capricious traders. Here you will find margin trading on Forex and cryptocurrency assets, investments in ETF-funds, as well as CFDs on stocks and goods, that is, everything that can be really traded today WebWhen we select this wallet option, the wallet's interface opens up. We enter our PIN numbers and process the payment. This switch from the food delivery application's interface to the wallet's interface is due to usage of an API, which borrows the wallet's functionality and lets us process the payment conveniently WebText messaging, or texting, is the act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile devices, desktops/laptops, or another type of compatible blogger.com messages may be sent over a cellular network, or may also be sent via an Internet connection.. The WebRésidence officielle des rois de France, le château de Versailles et ses jardins comptent parmi les plus illustres monuments du patrimoine mondial et constituent la plus complète réalisation de l’art français du XVIIe siècle Web18/01/ · A join operation uses a single SELECT statement to return a result set from multiple, related tables, typically those tables with a primary key - foreign key relationship. The two SQL clauses that perform joins are: WHERE clause: Query of Queries supports joins through a WHERE clause WebIndividual subscriptions and access to Questia are no longer available. We apologize for any inconvenience and are here to help you find similar resources ... read more
Marisa Chun Judge, Superior Court of California, County of San Francisco. GSM was allowed [ by whom? With the controlling party in Congress hanging in the balance, 51 percent of likely voters say they are extremely or very enthusiastic about voting for Congress this year; another 29 percent are somewhat enthusiastic while 19 percent are either not too or not at all enthusiastic. This means SMS messages can be sent directly to and from recipients without having to go through the SMS-C of other mobile operators. Marisa Chun Judge, Superior Court of California, County of San Francisco Phil Isenberg Former Chair Delta Stewardship Council Mas Masumoto Author and Farmer.in daily writing produced worse formal writing than those young adults who used fewer linguistic textisms in daily writing. secretly created how to operation binary in iq option funded a Twitter -like service for Cubans called ZunZuneoinitially based on mobile phone text message service and later with an internet interface. Most Reverend Jaime Soto Bishop of Sacramento Roman Catholic Diocese of Sacramento. Ito, D. Africa Americas North South Antarctica Asia Europe Oceania Global telecommunications regulation bodies.